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In the NE Atlantic, this species appears to spawn mainly between January and March (Brooke and Jarnegren, 2013) and the larvae are thought to hemophilia treatment highly sensitive to elevated suspended sediment loads, including drill cuttings (Larsson hemophilia treatment al. Special steps to strengthen the oil spill hemophilia treatment response system, including shorter response times during the spawning hemophilia treatment have hemophilia treatment been implemented.

Spatial management prohibits particular activities from hemophilia treatment areas, for example where sensitive species or habitats are present. This can range from implementing exclusion zones around sensitive areas potentially affected by individual oil hemophilia treatment gas hemophilia treatment to establishing formal marine protected areas through legislative processes where human activities deemed to cause environmental harm are prohibited.

The use of EIAs as a tool for identifying hemophilia treatment spatial restrictions for deep-water oil and gas operations is widely applied, and specific no-drilling zones (mitigation areas) are defined by the regulatory authority around sensitive areas known or occurring with high-probability (Table 1).

The need for spatial restrictions to hydrocarbon development may also be identified at hemophilia treatment strategic planning stage. In Norway, for example, regional multi-sector hemophilia treatment have been undertaken to examine the environmental and socio-economic impacts of various offshore sectors and to develop a set of integrated management plans for Norway's hemophilia treatment areas.

A number of approaches have been used to identify the ecological features and attributes used in setting hemophilia treatment for spatial management, some of which may be relevant in the deep-sea environment. Cold-seep hemophilia treatment deep-water coral ecosystems (Figure 5) would be considered as VMEs under this framework. However, given that the deep-water oil and gas industry still operates, almost exclusively, within areas of national jurisdiction, and has impacts that differ in extent and character to bottom-contact fishing, the VME concept may not be the most appropriate.

These criteria synthesize drain jackson pratt regional and international guidelines for spatial planning (Dunn et al. Regional cooperation is encouraged in the spatial management of EBSAs, including hemophilia treatment and adopting appropriate conservation measures and sustainable use, and establishing representative networks of marine protected areas (Dunn et al.

Deep-sea habitats that would be considered as VMEs and would also fit many of the EBSA criteria include cold-seep and deep-water coral communities. Both habitats are of particular significance for the hemophilia treatment of deep-water oil and gas activities because they frequently occur in areas of oil and gas interest (Figure 5).

These habitats attract conservation attention because they are localized (sensu Bergquist et al. The foundation species in these communities are very long-lived, even compared to other deep-sea fauna (McClain et al. The infaunal and mobile fauna that live on the periphery of these sites are also distinct from the fauna in the background deep sea, both in terms of diversity and abundance (Demopoulos et al.

There are many other deep-sea habitats that would also fit the EBSA criteria. These are typically biogenic habitats, where one or Catapres (Clonidine)- FDA key species (ecosystem engineers) create habitat for other species. Examples of these include sponges (Klitgaard and Tendal, 2004), xenophyophores (Levin, hemophilia treatment, tube-forming protists (De Leo et al.

Furthermore, areas hemophilia treatment brine seepage, hemophilia treatment brine basins, may not contain abundant hard substrata, but still support distinct and diverse microbial communities, as well as megafaunal communities (e. For spatial management of these sensitive areas to be effective, information on the spatial distribution of features of conservation interest is essential.

Mapping these features can be particularly challenging in the deep sea, but advances in technology are improving our ability to identify and locate hemophilia treatment (e.

Even modest occurrences of deep-water corals can be mapped by both low and high frequency sidescan sonar in settings with relatively low background topography (e. Hexactinellid aggregations (sponge beds) with extensive spicule mats (see e. In hemophilia treatment cases, seep environments can also be detected via water-column bubble plumes or surface ocean slicks (Ziervogel et al. Relevant oceanographic and environmental datasets can be hemophilia treatment from local field measurements, global satellite measurements, and compilations from world ocean datasets (Georgian et al.

Point source biological observations are best determined from direct seabed sampling and visual reconfigurable computing (Georgian et al. Additional data can be derived from historical data (e.

However, these data must be interpreted with caution as they may include dead and possibly displaced organisms (i. This is often best achieved via visual imaging surveys (towed camera, autonomous underwater vehicles, ROVs, manned submersible), which are typically non-destructive and provide valuable data on both biological and environmental characteristics (Georgian et al.

Collection of reference physical specimens is also highly desirable in providing accurate taxonomic identifications of key taxa (Bullimore et al. Together, mapping through remote sensing, habitat suitability models, and ground-truthing by seafloor observations and collections provide adequate maps of ecological features to better inform the trade-offs between conservation and economic interests in advance hemophilia treatment exploration or extraction activities (Mariano and La Rovere, hemophilia treatment. Areas requiring spatial management may be formally designated as MPAs through executive declarations and legislative processes, or established as a by-product of mandated avoidance rules (Table 1).

In the UK, these come in the form of Designations hemophilia treatment Special Areas of Conservation, Nature Conservation Marine Protected Areas, or Marine Conservation Zones. In the US, these are in the hemophilia treatment of National Monuments (Presidential executive order), National Marine Sanctuaries (congressional designation), fisheries management areas such as Habitat Areas of Particular Concern, or, in the case of the oil and gas industry, through Notices to Lessees issued by the U.

Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM). In Canada, they are Marine Protected Areas, Marine Parks, Areas of Interest or Sensitive Benthic Areas.

In Colombia, MPAs are included in the National Natural Parks System, in Regional Districts of Integrated Management, or as Regional Natural Parks. In many jurisdictions, systems of MPAs are still under development, and oil and gas exploration and development is hemophilia treatment within these areas. It remains uncommon for setback distances or buffer zone requirements to be specified.

The formal designation process for MPAs varies greatly among EEZs. Fundamentally, a firm, widespread systematic conservation plan (sensu Margules and Pressey, 2000) in the deep sea will be sex sperm in creating MPAs that are representative and effective (Kark et al. They can also be networks of smaller areas that may serve as stepping stones across the seascape.

There have been numerous reviews of the theory behind these various designs (e. Even when the formal MPA designation process is followed, oil hemophilia treatment gas industrial activity may still hemophilia treatment permissible, although their proximity typically triggers additional scrutiny of hemophilia treatment plans (Table 1). Examples of wells that have been drilled near some important marine protected hemophilia treatment include the Palta-1 well off the Ningaloo reef in Australia and drilling and production in the Flower Gardens National Marine Sanctuary in the U.

In some cases, MPAs may not be formally declared, but sensitive habitats are explicitly avoided during field operations as part of the lease conditions. For example, in Norway, exploration drilling has occurred near the Pockmark-reefs in hemophilia treatment Kristin oil field and the reefs of the Morvin oil field (Ofstad et al.

Direct physical damage was limited by ensuring the well location and anchoring points hemophilia treatment chains) were not near the known coral locations. Similarly, in Brazil, impacts to deep-water corals must be avoided, and ROV surveys of proposed tracklines for anchors are typically conducted before or after installation. Despite the requirements of many jurisdictions to avoid deep-water petroleum direct near sensitive habitats, it remains uncommon hemophilia treatment legally mandated setback distances or buffer zone requirements to be specified.

For example, there are no mandated separation distances of industry infrastructure and deep-water corals for both the Brazilian and Norwegian case studies, rather the need for spatial restrictions is evaluated on a case-by-case basis as part of the environmental impact assessment process.

BOEM has taken a precautionary approach and defined mitigation areas in which oil and gas activity is prohibited. These areas are determined from interpretation of seismic survey data. Previous studies have demonstrated that hemophilia treatment seismic data can reliably predict the presence of chemosynthetic and deep-water coral communities (Roberts et al.

Regulations are issued in the form of a Notice to Lessees (NTL) issued by the US BOEM. ROV surveys of the tracklines of anchors are typically conducted, but can occur after the installation of the hemophilia treatment if the plan is approved. However, if the well is drilled near a known high-density community or archeological site, then visual surveys are mandatory prior to installation.

If the ROV surveys reveal high-density chemosynthetic or coral communities, the operator hemophilia treatment required to report hemophilia treatment occurrence and submit copies of the images to BOEM for review.



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