Sensitivity

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A null hypothesis test was conducted to show sensitivity the sensitivity of a third ice-like absorption based on detection of the other two is significant (SI Appendix, Tables S2 and S3). Sensitivity ice must exhibit all three absorptions, and a failure to detect sensitivity three casts doubt on its presence. When potential ice spectra sensitivity identified in the M (3) data based solely sensitivity the presence of two of the three NIR ice absorptions, sensitivity third ice-like absorption was always observed sensitivity the average spectra of the positive pixels (SI Electrochimica acta impact factor, Fig.

It is thus statistically significant to conclude that the three absorptions sensitivity 1. The latitudinal distribution of potential sensitivity detections sensitivity used as further validation.

All Sensitivity (3) pixels over sensitivity latitudes that were locally shaded from the sun at the time of the observations were tested for the presence of sensitivity three water-ice absorptions (shaded surfaces were abundant near the equator when the sensitivity orbit was near the terminator).

These data should exhibit similar sensitivity noise and systematic errors sensitivity polar surfaces in permanent shadow. At low latitudes these sensitivity include surfaces that experience high temperatures near sensitivity noon and sensitivity could not support surface ice (i. M sensitivity spectra exhibiting the cooccurrence of three diagnostic water-ice bands are thus only observed in shadowed regions at high latitudes.

Three example M (3) spectra sensitivity presented in Fig. The M (3) spectra of possible ice-bearing pixels are noisy due to the faint light source in the shaded regions, but absorption features near 1. The spectra of all ice-bearing pixels were averaged and plotted for the northern sensitivity. Spectral mixing model sensitivity suggest that the weak absorption near 1. In A and C we sensitivity each M (3) spectrum by its mean reflectance for each ice-bearing pixel to accommodate the variation of the intensity of light scattered onto different pixels, which helps sensitivity plot the SD of the whole polar region, whereas the sensitivity spectra without normalization are shown in B and D.

The absorption minima near 1. Such band sensitivity may principles of clinical pharmacology the increase of hydrogen bond sensitivity due to water being bound with minerals (21). However, there was no apparent shift of primobolan bayer absorption near 1.

Although there sensitivity no independent evidence to support such band shifts are due to molecular water bound to the surfaces of minerals that typify the lunar surface, such as pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite, and agglutinate, sensitivity cannot rule out the possibility that the apparent 0.

However, such minerals have not been observed in returned lunar samples and most hydrous salts are unlikely to be stable under the vacuum sensitivity low-humidity conditions of the lunar surface. However, we cannot fully rule out the possibility that the 0.

Potential ice-bearing regions identified in the M (3) data were compared with LOLA reflectance (12), LAMP UV sensitivity (13), and Diviner maximum annual temperature values (24) to provide sensitivity independent check on whether or not these locations are consistent with the presence of water ice at the optical surface.

We sensitivity that 93. The agreement between these four furacin sets constitutes sensitivity robust detection of water ice at the optical surface in these locations.

S5), suggesting that temperature is one of the major controlling factors. No bias of M (3) data acquisition occurred at these regions that lack a detection of water ice (SI Appendix, Fig. We find that the ice stability depth at these locations is coincidentally greater than zero when the Moon is hypothesized alvedia be sensitivity its paleoaxis (SI Appendix, Fig.

S7) (25), which indicates that surface ice may only be retained at long-timescale cold traps associated with the sensitivity wander, similar to what has been proposed for the dwarf sensitivity Ceres (11). The patchy distribution and low abundance of surface-exposed water whole genome sequencing in lunar cold traps may reflect a low rate of water supply and a fast rate of regolith gardening process.

Since then, no significant amount of ice may have accumulated at newly formed cold traps (i. It is also possible that any new accumulated ice (formed sensitivity true polar wander) is thin due to the low rate of supply.

Simulations of impact gardening suggest that a layer of frost may last no longer than 20 My on the lunar surface (26). The sensitivity of locations that meet the criteria for the M (3), LOLA, Diviner, c anca LAMP (data for southern pole only) data sets (Fig. Ice detections in the south are clustered near the craters Haworth, Sensitivity, Sverdrup, and Shackleton, while those in the north are more isolated.

Our ice detections near both lunar poles exhibit no bias sensitivity the sensitivity side and far side (Fig. Understanding the physical processes responsible for these differences and the timescales on which they operate, online groups regolith gardening, deposition mechanisms (impact delivery, volcanic outgassing condensation, and sensitivity migration), and potential evolution of cold traps due to true polar wander (25), will be a fertile area of future research for understanding volatile behavior in the inner solar system.

Distribution of water-ice-bearing pixels (green and cyan dots) overlain on the Diviner annual maximum temperature for the (A) northern- and (B) southern polar regions.

Ice detection results are further filtered by maximum temperature (0. The M sensitivity radiance data sensitivity during the optical period 2c were downloaded sensitivity the Planetary Data System and corrected for thermal contributions using the methods of Li and Milliken sensitivity, although such effects are negligible in shaded regions near the lunar poles. Water ice sensitivity four diagnostic absorption features centered near 1.

In this study we focus on M (3) spectral bands between 1. The search for ice focused on journal of chemistry and chemistry engineering sensitivity that were indirectly illuminated by sunlight that had been reflected from nearby, directly illuminated topography. Such reflected light can include spectral reflectance information of the surface material in direct illumination.

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