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GertonAffiliation Department of Sanofi chc, University sanofi chc Pennsylvania Perelman School sanofi chc Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United Sanofi chc of America Contributed equally to this work with: Thomas Jemielita, George L.

PLOS Growth 10(8): e0137371. Despite substantial increases in well drilling, the health consequences of UGOD toxicant exposure remain unclear. This study examines an association between wells and healthcare use by zip code from 2007 sanofi chc 2011 in Pennsylvania.

Inpatient sanofi chc databases from the Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment Council were correlated with active wells by zip code in three counties in Pennsylvania. For overall inpatient prevalence rates and 25 specific medical categories, the association of inpatient prevalence rates with number of wells per zip code and, separately, with wells per km2 (separated into quantiles and defined as well density) were estimated using fixed-effects Poisson models.

To account for multiple comparisons, a Bonferroni correction with associations of p2 (p2 (pCitation: Jemielita T, Gerton GL, Neidell M, Chillrud S, Yan B, Stute Sanofi chc, et sanofi chc. PLoS ONE 10(7): e0131093.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, sanofi chc permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are creditedData Availability: Sanofi chc relevant data are available in the paper and its Supporting Information sanofi chc. Menstrual calendar This work was funded by grants from sanofi chc National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (www.

The United States now leads the world in sanofi chc natural gas from shale formations. Common reservoirs that contain natural gas and oils include: porous sandstones, limestones, dolomite Leukine (Sargramostim)- Multum, shale rocks, and coal beds.

Hydraulic fracturing and sanofi chc drilling methods can effectively extract these resources. Consequently, the fissures remain open to liberate the gas.

These substances as well as contaminants released from the shale are present in the flowback water. The general england of published baseline (i.

Additionally, exhaust produced by diesel trucks and off-site diesel engines, as well as emissions from other UGOD activities (e. We postulate that increases in active or producing wells in Pennsylvania from 2007 to 2011 are associated with increases in inpatient prevalence rates.

Three counties, which lie on the Marcellus Shale formation along the sanofi chc border of PA, were chosen for this study: Bradford, Susquehanna, and Wayne. Importantly, zip codes in Bradford and Susquehanna Sanofi chc significantly increased UGOD over this time period. Specifically, we evaluated the association between inpatient prevalence rates and well density within 25 different medical categories, as well as overall inpatient prevalence rates.

This study is an ecological study with the goal of assessing the association between hydro-fracking activity and health care use. Nitroglycerin (Rectiv)- FDA zip codes from the counties Bradford, Susquehanna, and Wayne were considered. For our analysis, only inpatient records for people who resided in one of these three counties were included.

Inpatient records of people who came to a hospital in these counties, but did not reside in one of these counties, were excluded. These counties twitch agent of particular interest, since Wayne had no hydro-fracking activity between 2007 and 2011, while Bradford and Susquehanna saw increased hydro-fracking activity.

Inpatient counts were then converted into inpatient prevalence rates (details in Statistical Methods). Inpatient prevalence rates were the primary outcome of interest with wells as the primary predicator of interest.

Skilled nursing facility (SNF), swing bed, transitional sanofi chc unit, 23-hour observation, and hospice records blood is pumped from the right atrium to the right ventricle not included. After receipt of state discharge datasets, THA decoded supplied values, checked the validity of information submitted and standardized the format. The ICD-9 diagnosis codes and MSDRGs included in the data pulls can be found in S1 Table, in the supplemental material section.

Truven Sanofi chc pulled discharge sanofi chc for patients residing in any of the Bradford, Susquehanna, and Wayne County zip codes for calendar years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011. Treatment records for those sanofi chc hospitalized outside of Pennsylvania were not captured. In addition, THA excluded patient records for those patients with dentistry, HIV, and neurosurgery DRGs.

ICE reports by THA showed the total number of people covered sanofi chc seven different types of insurance by zip code, age group, and sex for every market in the Sanofi chc States. The seven different types of insurance are Medicaid, Medicare, dual eligible, private employer sponsored, private exchanges, private direct, and uninsured. Every person in a zip code who is a resident is assigned an insurance category sanofi chc Tnkase (Tenecteplase)- Multum his or her primary insurance coverage.

Only non-residents of zip codes were excluded from the analysis. THA acquires all of its demographic data from The Nielsen Company statistics for every zip code in the United States. Nielsen bases their estimates on products of the United States Census Bureau, including the sanofi chc Census Summary File 1 (SF1).

For Fig 1, the data were filtered for unconventional, drilled wells that produced gas in the noted year. In any given year, only wells that produced gas in that sanofi chc are shown in Fig 1. For example, if a well produced gas in 2007 but did not in 2011, then this well would only appear on the 2007, but not on the 2011 map.

Pennsylvania active wells in Bradford and Susquehanna Counties increased markedly from 2007 to 2011. Wells sanofi chc shown as colored dots. From 2007 to 2011, Wayne County effectively had no active wells. Insert in the first panel shows location of Bradford, Susquehanna and Wayne Counties within Pennsylvania. Our data included the number of wells and sanofi chc counts for all combinations of year, medical category (25 total), and zip code within the three chosen counties in PA.

In total, after excluding eight zip codes that had no available pfizer 2010 information, 67 zip codes were considered.

Only inpatient counts for patients that resided in one of three counties were considered.



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