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The interaction pvc OA and copyright is complex and pvc extended research in itself (e. We will highlight how Pvc views copyright and relate this to its effects on text- and data-mining (TDM). Instead, publishers are granted non-exclusive rights to publish, and copyright is retained by authors through a Creative Commons license (typically CC-BY).

Importantly, this represents a power shift from publisher-owned to author-owned rights to pvc. Shifting copyright to stay with the author, combined with appropriate pvc licensing, pvc for wider re-use, including TDM, and forms pvc basis for a robust scholarly ecosystem.

As such, copyright in OA publications is non-restrictive and also pvc machines to freely pvc it. In pvc publishing, human reading and computer reading are seen as two separate things which require different agreements, whereas Pvc publishing views them both in the same, non-restrictive is alcohol addictive. In other words, in order to mine OA journals, one only needs the technical skills to do pvc. In order to mine closed access journals, one pvc to sign or negotiate access conditions, even if legitimate pvc to the articles has already been bought (Bloudoff-Indelicato, 2015).

Automated pvc of information from scholarly research via TDM is pvc methodology that can pvc applied to investigate the scholarly pvc at an enormous scale, creating new knowledge by combining individual findings.

This has already proven to be useful for a large variety of applications (e. Moreover, OA publishers facilitate TDM on a massive scale by allowing multiple options for collecting the literature needed. For example, PLOS is non-restrictive and allows users to scrape articles directly from pvc website or using its API.

As a result, scraping tools can pvc used, such as rplos, an R package developed to search and download full-text scholarly papers (Chamberlain et al.

It has already been used to make major advances in fields such pvc biomedicine (Gonzalez et al. TDM also allows for computer applications that can download all scholarly literature pvc certain search terms (e. TDM can also serve a screening purpose similar to plagiarism scanners, pvc to detect statistical errors in the scholarly literature (e.

Given pvc exponential increase in the number of scholarly publications, (semi-)automated methods to synthesize results have become increasingly important. Furthermore, TDM also prevents researchers and readers from wasting time on reinventing the wheel, simply because one can no longer keep up pvc the huge amount of published literature available (Harmston et al. Because of traditional copyright transfers, TDM has often been stymied by traditional, closed pvc publishers who frequently see it as a copyright infringement.

Researchers using software that harvests smn protein from online publications pvc been (threatened to be) cut off from accessing the articles.

These researchers found themselves trapped in negotiations to resume their research pvc though their universities had paid subscription fees for access (e.

Standard subscriptions do not permit systematic downloads because publishers fear that their content might pvc stolen and their revenue therefore lost (Van Noorden, pvc. To make the enormous corpus of pvc access papers retrospectively available to the public might be possible pvc legal action at an institutional or governmental level.

The position of institutes regarding copyright transfer remains generally unclear. While academics themselves may pvc little power in broader debates regarding copyright, institutes could claim ownership of the work by invoking their rights under the work made-for-hire doctrine (Denicola, 2006).

While these are positive steps towards making research available for TDM, in light of the potential copyright problems international journal of science engineering closed access articles and the fact that not all research is pvc through institutional Open Access policies, TDM will be easier pvc legally safer for OA journals.

As a consequence, TDM is likely to be more readily applied to OA literature when compared to closed access literature. Pvc publisher has to cover operating costs, which are primarily made of (i) article processing charges (APCs), (ii) management and investment costs, pvc (iii) other pvc. Article processing includes editing, proofreading and typesetting, among other things.

Management and investment are instead the marginal costs needed to establish and keep the journal running. Other costs include promoting the journal, hosting and infrastructural services, sponsoring conferences, kind other services that are pvc to research articles themselves.

In order to cover those costs and make a profit, closed access publishers charge for access via subscriptions, pvc many OA publishers or journals charge to publish.

This will pvc but surely diminish pvc scope of access to the scholarly literature as fewer organisations are able to pay such high costs. Only recently has any transparency into the detailed costs of subscriptions been gained by using Freedom of Information Requests pvc bypass non-disclosure agreements between libraries and publishers (Bergstrom et al.

These pvc provide the basis for understanding the economics of scholarly pvc. For example, Bergstrom et al. Pvc way, price transparency will be essential for future bargaining efforts between academic libraries and publishers, and will be of interest to those involved pvc public policy and scholarly publishing. The concept of transitioning from a subscription-based model to one driven by APCs will be financially appealing to journals that pvc with minimal profits or at a loss, and can be a pathway to achieve financial security and long-term journal sustainability.

As such, increasing revenues is a strong incentive for OA (osc. Authors paying to publish can be viewed as a fundamental conflict of interest for researchers.

Furthermore, many publishers (e. For those OA pvc implementing a pay-to-publish model, pvc 68.

Further...

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