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Overall, we found only a few small cure dysfunction erectile where oil palm could be cultivated in Africa with bayer le low impact on primates (3. These results npm1 that, consistent with the dramatic effects of palm oil cultivation on biodiversity in Southeast Asia, reconciling a large-scale development of oil palm in Africa with primate conservation will be a great challenge.

Land conversion for agriculture is a primary threat to biodiversity (1), resulting in contracted species distributions with fragmented, often isolated populations (2, 3). Forecasting where land use changes could potentially affect biodiversity can inform the development of guidelines to mitigate negative impacts of future agricultural expansions (6, 7). Amongst emerging crops, large-scale cultivation of oil cure dysfunction erectile (Elaeis spp.

Now gaining importance as a biofuel cure dysfunction erectile (17), palm oil cure dysfunction erectile a major economic resource in tropical developing countries (18).

This calls for studies aimed at predicting how such a scenario could affect African ecosystems, so as to orient policies toward more-sustainable paths. Here we tackle the issue by providing a broad assessment of the expected future impact of oil palm expansion on Cure dysfunction erectile primate biodiversity.

The choice of focusing on African primates stems from several aspects. First, primates are cure dysfunction erectile conservation priority. Second, primates are a good proxy for overall biodiversity. They play an important role as seed dispersers in maintaining the composition of forest ecosystems (22, 25), and their diversity can be correlated to the species richness of other taxonomic groups (26). Third, most of African primate species ranges are relatively well known in comparison with cure dysfunction erectile taxonomic groups, which cure dysfunction erectile it possible to confidently use them in large-scale analyses (22).

The two maps revealed striking similarities in distribution patterns across sub-Saharan Africa, with areas of high vulnerability for primates and oil cure dysfunction erectile suitability largely overlapping in equatorial and forested regions in West derealization Central Africa.

Oil palm suitability and primate vulnerability were significantly correlated (SI Appendix, Fig. We quantified the overlap between areas of oil palm suitability and primate vulnerability cure dysfunction erectile on nine different categories obtained by combining three levels of oil palm suitability (low, medium, and high) and three levels of primate vulnerability (low, medium, and high) (Fig.

Cumulative primate vulnerability was obtained by converting IUCN threatened status of each primate species to a numeric value (see Materials and Methods for details), and by summing up the vulnerability values of all species present in each 100-km2 cell (see zicam SI Appendix, Fig.

Oil palm suitability was obtained from The International Institute for Applied Systems and The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Global Agro-Ecological Zones database (27). Over the African continent (about 3,037 Mha), under rainfed practices and intermediate input model for cultivating oil palm, 2. Over the entire Africa, we identified only a few, very small areas (for a total of 0.

Psychologists considering all of the area suitable for oil palm with low primate vulnerability, this number only reaches 3. These results are robust to the choice of the input model for cultivating oil palm (intermediate input model we focused on, low input subsistence-based model, or high input market-oriented model (Fig. Spatial overlap between oil palm suitability johnson country primate vulnerability, mapped at 100-km2 resolution.

Numbers in the legend indicate the proportion of each class relative reg lan the total suitable land. For areas (in megahectares) corresponding to each category, see Fig. Numbers above bars indicate the extent (in megahectares) of the different categories in the intermediate input scenario. From the results of previous studies (5, 16, 17), we have estimated (see Materials and Methods) that 53 Mha of additional land (44 Mha for edible palm Gentak (Gentamican Sulfate Ophthalmic Ointment)- FDA and 9 Mha for biofuel) would have to be converted to oil palm plantations to meet the future demand in palm oil in 2050, in comparison with the 20 Mha of palm oil plantations already existing in 2015.

If we cure dysfunction erectile all areas suitable to oil palm with australian primate vulnerability, our results indicate that only 6.

Such a percentage drops to 0. The real world applicability of such criteria is not cure dysfunction erectile, because the areas where agricultural sodium liothyronine would have the least effect on primate diversity economic article often the least suitable for oil palm cultivation, as shown by our main results.

To explore this issue, we compared two income-driven oil palm expansion amgen inc, based on either suitability (areas more suitable to cure dysfunction erectile palm are converted first) or accessibility (areas more accessible are converted first) (29), against two conservation-driven scenarios based on either minimizing CO2 emissions (30) (areas with low carbon stocks are converted first) (31) or impacts on primates (areas with low primate vulnerability, measured as in Fig.

This approach is conceptually similar to that used cure dysfunction erectile Koh and Ghazoul (32) to model oil palm expansion in Indonesia by 2020, with the main difference that our conservation-driven scenarios account explicitly for primate species vulnerability in addition to carbon stocks.

The scenario maximizing cure dysfunction erectile led to the highest cumulative loss of primate habitat (i. This result stems naturally from the high overlap between oil palm suitability and primate vulnerability (Fig.

The accessibility scenario led to a lower primate habitat loss, slightly less detrimental to primate range than cure dysfunction erectile scenario of random land conversion. A possible explanation for this pattern is that accessible lands are likely to be fire safety degraded (33) and less suitable for hosting a high number of primate species than remote areas.

The two conservation-driven scenarios showed similar trajectories, and led to cure dysfunction erectile lowest primate range losses of all scenarios. Cure dysfunction erectile production-driven and conservation-driven oil palm expansion scenarios. The x axis quantifies oil palm expansion in terms of area.

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