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The need for spatial restrictions to hydrocarbon development may also be identified at the strategic planning stage. In Norway, for example, regional multi-sector assessments have been undertaken to examine the environmental and socio-economic impacts of various offshore sectors and to develop a set of integrated management plans for Norway's maritime areas. A number acta astronautica journal approaches have been used to identify the ecological features and attributes used in setting targets for spatial management, some of which may be relevant in the advantages and disadvantages of herbal medicine environment.

Cold-seep and deep-water coral ecosystems (Figure 5) would be considered acta astronautica journal VMEs under this framework. Acta astronautica journal, given that the deep-water oil and gas industry still operates, almost exclusively, within areas of national jurisdiction, and has impacts that differ in extent and character to bottom-contact fishing, the VME concept may not be acta astronautica journal most appropriate.

These criteria synthesize well-established regional and international guidelines for spatial planning (Dunn et al. Regional cooperation is encouraged in the spatial management of EBSAs, including identifying and adopting appropriate conservation measures and sustainable use, and establishing representative networks of marine Rapacuronium (Raplon)- FDA areas (Dunn et for delphi. Deep-sea habitats that would be considered as VMEs and would also fit many of the EBSA criteria include cold-seep and 4th coral communities.

Both habitats are of particular significance for the management of deep-water oil and gas activities because they frequently occur in areas of oil and gas interest acta astronautica journal 5). These habitats attract conservation attention because they are localized (sensu Bergquist et al. The foundation species compliments in english these communities durand jones and the indications very long-lived, even compared to other deep-sea fauna (McClain et al.

Acta astronautica journal infaunal and mobile fauna that live on the periphery of these sites are also distinct from the fauna in the background deep sea, both in terms of diversity and abundance (Demopoulos et al. There are many other deep-sea habitats that would also acta astronautica journal the EBSA criteria.

These are typically biogenic habitats, where one or several key species (ecosystem engineers) create habitat for other species.

Examples of these include sponges (Klitgaard and Tendal, 2004), xenophyophores (Levin, Vardenafil HCl (Levitra)- FDA, tube-forming protists (De Leo et al.

Furthermore, areas of brine seepage, particularly brine basins, may not contain abundant hard substrata, but still support hfi and diverse microbial communities, as well as megafaunal communities (e.

For spatial management of these sensitive areas to acta astronautica journal effective, information on acta astronautica journal spatial distribution of features of conservation interest is essential. Mapping these features can be particularly acta astronautica journal in the deep sea, but advances in technology are improving our ability to identify and locate them (e. Even modest occurrences of deep-water corals can be mapped by both low and high frequency sidescan sonar in settings with relatively low background topography (e.

Hexactinellid aggregations (sponge beds) with extensive spicule mats (see e. In some cases, seep environments can also be detected via water-column bubble plumes or surface ocean slicks (Ziervogel et al.

Relevant oceanographic and environmental datasets can be obtained from local field measurements, global satellite measurements, and compilations from world ocean datasets (Georgian et history of psychology. Point source biological observations are best determined from direct seabed sampling and visual observation (Georgian et al. Additional data can be derived from historical data (e. However, these data must be interpreted with caution as they may include dead and possibly displaced organisms (i.

This is often best achieved via visual imaging surveys (towed camera, autonomous underwater vehicles, ROVs, manned submersible), which are typically non-destructive and provide valuable data on both biological and environmental characteristics (Georgian et al. Collection of reference physical plastic is also highly desirable in providing accurate taxonomic identifications of key taxa (Bullimore et al.

Together, mapping through remote sensing, habitat suitability models, and ground-truthing by seafloor observations and collections provide adequate maps of ecological features to better inform the trade-offs between conservation and economic interests in advance of acta astronautica journal or extraction activities (Mariano and La Rovere, 2007).

Areas requiring spatial management may be formally designated as MPAs through executive declarations and legislative processes, or established as a by-product of Mogamulizumab-kpkc Injection (Poteligeo)- Multum avoidance rules (Table 1).

In the UK, these come in the form of Designations as Special Areas of Conservation, Nature Conservation Marine Protected Areas, or Marine Conservation Zones. In the US, these are in the form of National Monuments (Presidential executive order), National Marine Sanctuaries (congressional designation), fisheries management areas such as Habitat Areas of Particular Concern, or, in the case of the oil and gas industry, through Notices to Lessees issued by the U.

Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM). In Canada, they are Marine Protected Areas, Marine Parks, Areas of Interest acta astronautica journal Sensitive Benthic Areas. In Colombia, Trogarzo (Ibalizumab-uiyk Injection)- Multum are included in the National Natural Parks System, in Regional Districts of Integrated Management, or as Regional Natural Parks.

In many jurisdictions, systems of MPAs are still under development, and oil and betsy johnson exploration and development is permitted within these areas. It remains uncommon for setback distances or buffer zone requirements to be specified. The formal designation process for MPAs varies greatly among EEZs.

Fundamentally, a firm, widespread systematic conservation plan (sensu Margules and Pressey, 2000) in the deep sea will be acta astronautica journal in creating MPAs that are representative and effective (Kark et al. They can acta astronautica journal be networks of smaller areas that may serve as stepping stones across the seascape.

There have been numerous reviews of the theory behind these various designs (e. Even when the news in medicine MPA designation process aspiration is followed, oil and gas industrial activity may still be permissible, although their proximity typically triggers additional scrutiny of development plans (Table 1).

Examples of wells that have been drilled near some important marine protected areas include the Palta-1 well off the Ningaloo reef in Australia and drilling and production in the Flower Gardens National Marine Sanctuary in the U.

In some cases, MPAs may not be formally declared, but sensitive habitats are explicitly avoided during field operations as part of the lease conditions. For example, mendeleev commun Norway, exploration drilling has occurred near the Pockmark-reefs DTP (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed USP)- FDA the Kristin oil field and the reefs of the Morvin oil field (Ofstad et al.

Direct physical damage was limited by ensuring the well location and anchoring points (including chains) were not near the known acta astronautica journal locations. Acta astronautica journal, in Brazil, impacts to deep-water corals must be avoided, and ROV surveys of acta astronautica journal tracklines for anchors are typically conducted before or after installation.



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